The study was carried out using modern inputs against traditional inputs and practices for potato production were conducted in the different agro-ecological zones and agro-climatic locations of Bangladesh during 2011-2012. The selected study areas were brought under potato production with the different modern varieties of potato like Diamant (55%), Cardinal (30%), and Granola (15%). It was observed that the total cost of potato production (fixed cost and variable cost) varied from Tk. 132,180 to Tk. 148,735 per ha for modern to traditional cultivation practices. The major cost involvement for modern practices was observed in (a) seed (43.1%), (b) hired and family human labors (19.93%), (c) fertilizer (16.23%), and (d) pesticides (5.26%). And for traditional practices of potato the cost involvement was found (i) seed (46.46%), (ii) fertilizer (21.66%), (iii) hired and family human labors (10%) and (iv) pesticides (9.9%). The cost was comparatively low in modern practices than in traditional practices as it was found mainly due to adoption of recommended technology, appropriate dose and timely use of modern inputs and practices. The yield was found 26 t ha-1 in modern practices and 24 t/ha in traditional practices. The net profit was significantly higher in modern practices than traditional practices; the net profit in modern practices was found at Rangpur Tk. 98,079 per ha, Thakurgaon Tk. 72,741 per ha and Comilla Tk. 46,950 per ha. It was recommended from the study that the farmers will be economically benefited if they use modern inputs; adopt technologies; use quality seed of improved varieties at recommended dose; timely use of fertilizers and pesticides; timely application of irrigation; and appropriate crop management including weeding and other practices.